Saturday, July 4, 2020

Discrimination of Care Services - Free Essay Example

With more than 83% of occupational therapists being white, it is clear there is a lack of diversity within the field (Data USA). This is also obvious when looking at the demographics of occupational therapy clients. Because occupational therapy is often not seen as essential health care which basic insurance and medicaid would cover, only those who can afford it or have better insurance have access to it. This leads to marginalized populations and minorities not having access to occupational therapy. This is dangerous as it perpetuates the cycle of expected occupations within these communities. Occupations look different within impoverished, marginalized, and urban settings. Working with children and adolescents in these areas makes these differences apparent because adolescence is when habits such as drug use, study skills, and violence are solidified. Having occupational therapists who specialize in working with these communities and populations could improve positive outcomes, lower incarceration rates, and break cycles of unhealthy occupations such as drug and alcohol abuse. I chose this topic because my major is in Occupational Sciences and Occupational Therapy. I have an interest in social justice issues which stems from my hometown being St. Louis, Missouri. In St. Louis, discrimination and systemic marginalization are prevalent issues in daily life, especially within the city and impoverished areas. St. Louis is a very segregated city, both racially and socioeconomically, which leads to distinct and polarized lifestyles. These different lifestyles result in different occupations and activities of daily living based on need and habits. Through this literature review, equity of care across diverse and marginalized groups will be examined. It will look at not only how occupational therapists working in marginalized populations and communities can embrace the differences in the communities, but also how the differences in their clients occupations will change their jobs. It will go over six articles from various occupational therapy journals and newsletters that have to do with social justice within health care disparities and resource allocation as well as the meaning of occupation within lower-income and marginalized populations. Drs. Suzanne M. Peloquin and Beatriz C. Abreu wrote the first article, Embracing Diversity in Our Profession, for the American Journal of Occupational Therapy in June 2004. Both doctors are professors and researchers at the University of Texas-Galveston and Dr. Peloquin was named one of the Top 100 Most Influential People in Occupational Therapy(AOTA). They have both been cited hundreds of times, making them qualified and trusted within their field. This article looks at diversity within occupational therapy in a unique way because of its subjective and personal nature. The authors use both personal experiences and professional observations to examine the construction of prejudices against other people and populations who are different from their own environment. This allows them to offer better ways to value uniqueness and support diversity. They introduce the idea of other-isms as a social construct that leads to problems with stereotyping marginalized minorities. It also discusses the effects of cultural diversity on occupational therapy and occupations specifically rather than its effects on health-based practices overall which is not frequently examined. Embracing Diversity in Our Profession is important because of how specific it is to occupational therapy. Because the authors are both practicing, experienced occupational therapists, they are able to give a unique perspective on a topic that is complex, misunderstood, and often forgotten. The article is written with substantial sections being quotes and experiences of the authors which means there is a lot of text based on opinion rather than objective facts and research. However, because Peloquin and Abreau acknowledge this, the bias is less significant and problematic. They wrote to occupational therapists who are practicing in the field and working with more marginalized populations. This allows them to attempt to avoid making assumptions based on the various -isms described in the text. Dr. Susan Bazyk and Mr. John Bazyk are the coauthors of Meaning of Occupation-Based Groups for Low-Income Urban Youths Attending After-School Care. Dr. and Mr. Bazyk are both registered and licensed occupational therapists. They have been associate professors in the occupational therapy program at Cleveland State University in Ohio. They are both highly regarded in their field and combined have been quoted and cited in over 60 other articles, making their work credible and reliable. This article focuses on occupation and occupational sciences rather than occupational therapy. Children and adolescents in low-income, urban areas often participate in different occupations than children in higher income, suburban, or rural areas resulting in life-long changes in social and emotional development. During their research, the authors conducted a study in which they had children and adolescents from marginalized communities participate in creative activities intended to improve mood and engage them. Dr. and Mr. Bazyk found that the children enjoyed the activities which opened them up to talking and learning strategies for dealing with anger. These results showed that allowing children to take part in occupations they enjoy enhances them as therapeutic tools. The research primarily focuses on the unique needs and occupations of children and adolescents in poor areas of cities which are neglected populations in both treatment and research. It focuses on how differing occupations change emotional, academic, and social development and how occupation can be used to improve academic achievement, sense of personal identity, emotional self-regulation, social interaction, and teamwork. This article was written by adults in higher socioeconomic classes about lower income youths. This means that while it is objective, it is also susceptible to being out of touch with the results and which may be skewed based on prejudice and assumptions. Dr. and Mr. Bazyk wrote to occupational therapists working with children in impoverished neighborhoods in an after-care setting. This is because they are the professionals who could make the most direct and significant changes in the field. Social Justice and Resource Utilization in a Community-Based Organization: A Case Illustration of the Role of the Occupational Therapist was written by Drs. Brent Braveman and Yolanda Suarez-Balcazar for the American Journal of Occupational Therapy. Dr. Braveman is a clinical professor in the Department of Occupational Therapy at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Dr. Suarez-Balcazar is a professor and the department head in the Department of Occupational Therapy at the University of Illinois at Chicago. They are both highly qualified within the occupational therapy community and have been referenced many times by other authors. Dr. Braveman specializes in social justice and equity surrounding occupational therapy and has written over fifteen published articles on similar topics. The text discusses social justice theories, human rights, medical empowerment, and occupational justice and how they tie together. It explains the responsibility of the health care systems to provide access to care, even within more marginalized areas. The authors explain that by prioritizing human rights, medical empowerment, and occupational justice, over time, individuals will be more self-sufficient and require less treatment. The text discusses two cases in which occupational therapy was used to facilitate social justice. By assessing and addressing individuals levels of self-sufficiency and environmental limitations, marginalized people will be more capable of getting the proper amounts and types of care. The research is important because it looks at the past of occupational therapy and how it has affected the present. It also explains what the future currently holds for occupational therapy and what occupational therapists, as health professionals, can do to make more positive outcomes about occupational identities, competence, and behavior settings. Some problems with the writing are that it makes assumptions about not only occupational therapists, but also their patients. Though the authors have done their research, they could have skewed writing based on personal prejudices about occupational therapists and patients. Drs. Braveman and Suarez-Balcazar are writing to practicing occupational therapists who have the power to implement changes in the way they practice. Changes in practice would result in an improvement in patient outcomes which is the primary goal of health care. The article, Justice and U.S. Occupational Therapy Practice: A Relationship 100 Years in the Making was written by Drs. Rebecca M Aldrich, Tessa L. Boston, and Claire E. Daaleman. They all have their doctorates in occupational therapy and are professors at various universities across the United States. Although this article has not been referenced or cited yet, this is the result of it being published in February of 2017. The authors have been cited in other documents over 150 times for their other articles which makes them, and their work, credible. The text was chosen because of its focus on social justice within occupational therapy in the United States. This was difficult to find as a majority of the research on this topic has been done in Canada. It is unique because it brought research in from fields outside of occupational therapy and health care such as law, international justice, and medical care across international borders. The authors mention not only that occupational therapy is very helpful in adjusting to a new culture, but also why and how it can help immigrants adjust. The way so many diverse topics were brought together made this an uncommon source. How it combines the socio-economic biases of medicine with the immigration policies of the United States provides a new way to use and look at the old research. This article was written by three caucasian women who are United States citizens which means that though they can research and empathize with these problems and biases, they cannot sympathize which makes the article impersonal but accurate and objective. While it was written by three caucasian women, the audience for Justice and U.S. Occupational Therapy Practice is broader than most articles written on this topic. The audience is not only practicing occupational therapists but also policy makers in the American Occupational Therapy Association. It is written to the occupational therapists because, since they are interacting directly with the clients, their services are what changes the dispersal of services. However, the policy makers are also an audience because they are the professionals who can change accessibility and availability of the services. If these two groups were to change how they were providing care, more people with less privilege would have access to occupational therapy. Sharpening Our Critical Edge: Occupational Therapy in the Context of Marginalized Populations by Alison J. Gerlach was published in the Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy in 2015. Gerlach has her doctorate of occupational therapy from the University of British Columbia where she now teaches and does research. She has been published 15 times and her articles have been referenced nearly 60 times. This research looks at the importance of intersectional analysis of occupational therapy within marginalized populations. Gerlach found that what primarily shapes health is not medical treatments or lifestyle choices, but rather where individuals live, work, and play. She proposed that intersectional care would enhance occupational therapy and promote an increase in treatment of marginalized patients who otherwise would not receive care. It also looks at the idea of occupation within different socioeconomic classes that are rarely mentioned in other articles. It discusses value and context of occupational while discussing social order and privilege within health care goals. Dr. Gerlach is a caucasian, upper-middle class female who, although she has done research and empathizes with her patients, can never truly sympathize with them which results in impersonal conclusions based on her data and research. Although this distance makes her conclusions impersonal, it also makes them less biased and subjective. She wrote this to occupational therapists who are practicing in less privileged areas with people who are more marginalized and overlooked when it comes to health care. Drs. Brent Braveman and Julie Bass-Haugen are coauthors of Social Justice and Health Disparities: An Evolving Discourse in Occupational Therapy Research and Intervention. This, along with some of their other articles, was published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy in 2009. Because of where and how many times they have been published, Drs. Braveman and Bass-Haugen evidently are trusted within the occupational therapy community. This article not only discusses social justice and health disparities within occupational therapy, but also how they relate to each other. It focuses on the medical implications of health inequities and inequalities and the differences in care that are present between people of different genders, races, ethnicities, educational backgrounds, socioeconomic statuses, abilities, geographic locations, and sexual orientations. Because of the differences in incidence, prevalence, and mortality that are a direct result of different occupations within these backgrounds, according to Braveman and Bass-Haugen, this is an issue for occupational therapists. The research they did specifically names the causes of health disparities, develops intervention strategies, explores the human causes of disparities, and recognizes systemic problems and how those problems can be changed. This information is important because it looks at what occupational therapy is and what it is meant to do. It encourages practicing therapists to promote justice and improve health by allowing people with diverse and marginalized backgrounds to have access to their services. The article does not use any new information or research. It looks at old information in a new way which brings all the bias from its referenced articles to the new article. The old information could also be misused or misinterpreted in the new article, resulting in skewed facts. The audiences for this article are occupational therapists practicing in diverse and marginalized communities as well as the professionals making the laws that make care available. These six articles show how social justice issues such as racial and socioeconomic backgrounds create a hierarchy in which the white and wealthy receive better care than those who are minorities and poor. This creates a system where people who have been oppressed and denied care continue to be forgotten. Equity of care, occupational justice, and health disparities across diverse and marginalized groups were major themes throughout the articles. In Social Justice and Resource Utilization in a Community-Based Organization: A Case Illustration of the Role of the Occupational Therapist the idea of occupational justice is introduced. Occupational justice involves inequities that are present when participation in occupations is prohibited, undeveloped, disrupted, alienated, marginalized, exploited, excluded, or otherwise restricted (Braveman and Bass-Haugen). Occupational justice is often impaired when policies that cause health inequities in different populations are changed (Gerlach). T hese inequities often have three primary features; it has systematic, consistent patterns across populations, is socially produced and easily changed, and is unfair from a perspective of basic human rights (Braveman and Bass-Haugen). The second major point of all the articles has to do with the repercussions of these inequalities. Occupational therapists have to change how they do their jobs to embrace different occupations across diverse communities. Occupation looks different within different social groups and are often seen as other and therefore lesser (Peloquin and Abreau). Occupations such as panhandling on the street, lining up to get a hot meal, or getting a fix for an addiction are under acknowledged occupations. Because most theories are based on middle-class views and norms, many treatments lack meaning for clients who live in very different social conditions (Gerlach). This means that occupational therapists must adapt to the needs and wants of individuals outside of their usual clientele demographics. By embracing the complexities of peoples lives rather than expecting them to conform to our practice models and tools, we can avoid the use of occupations such as vandalism, drug use, and gang activity to meet social, physical, and relaxation needs(Bazyk and Bazyk). This will promote a more complex and contextualized understanding of health and occupation in relation to varying forms of marginalization and social exclusion (Gerlach), therefore enhancing occupational therapy as a tool. As in all aspects of life, people have experienced discrimination and marginalization in health care. Because of this, marginalized people do not have access to occupational therapy and when they do, it is not pertinent to their needs and occupations. The texts looked at in this review discuss how adapting occupational therapy and making it available would benefit many lives. However, these texts are very unique in their content. Not many articles have been written about occupational and social justice. More research needs to be done in this area of occupational therapy. Many of the studies did not have research and data and were lacking scientific evidence. As research continues, there need to be more longitudinal studies done looking at the effects of occupational therapy on individuals in marginalized, underprivileged populations. With social justice and equity of healthcare being such popular topics, occupational therapy in this area will be further scrutinized and critiqued. If occupational therapists were to start implementing intersectional techniques, occupational equity would improve and quality of life would most likely improve in impoverished areas. If this were to happen, there would most likely be an improvement in positive outcomes, a decrease in incarceration rates, and a decrease in use of unhealthy occupations, resulting in overall better health for americans.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Role of Functional Neuroimaging Techniques in Studying Brain Behavior - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2027 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/04/05 Category Psychology Essay Level High school Tags: Behavior Essay Did you like this example? Since Psychology was emerging by the first psychologist, Sigmund Freud, psychologists just get more informations than just records from talk therapies. Neuroscientists developed several techniques to study brain behavior by measure their emotional and intellectual activity to understand people better through their brain to be able to further observation their physical behavior. They find a way to ensure it is safe to use on patients while obtains important informations they can find. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Role of Functional Neuroimaging Techniques in Studying Brain Behavior" essay for you Create order The Neuroimaging techniques is use of different techniques to either indirectly or directly image the pharmacology, structure and function of the nervous system. They were mostly used as practice in neuroscience, medicine, and psychology field. The purpose of using the neuroimaging technique to help doctors and researchers to see the activity or problems in humans brain and get the diagnosis to identity the activity or problem. There are six accepted and safe neuroimaging techniques to study brain behavior are using today in research facilities and hospitals all around the world. These six techniques were known as Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), electroencephalography (EEG), Magnetocencephalography (MEG) and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). These Neuroimaging technologies will be explain what is their functional roles and how it benefits in understanding the brain behaviors. They are very important techniques that were used by neuroscientist who can identity mental illness or other disease and able to understand why the patient behaved the certain things. Each techniques will be explained their functional roles, advantages and disadvantages. The one of six Neuroimaging techniques was known as (fMRI) that measure the indirect consequences of the haemodyamic response. The procedure was that the patient has to lay on the movable exam ination table and go through the large cylindrical-shaped tube of an MRI scanner that contains powerful electro-magnet and stay for the certain time in between 10 to an hour depending on which part of your body. For an example, the patient perform the MRI for bipolar manic and it was found that he has Bipolar disorder by discovering the colored stimulating neurons activity on the brain frontal lobe where Amygdala located. From the research article to the conclusion of detecting bipolar manic, Bipolar manic subjects exhibit blunted brain fMRI response to emotional cues throughout the ventrolateral prefrontal emotional arousal network. (Stephen M. Strakowski, MD, 2015) The neuroscientist can give the diagnosis of bipolar mania from the evidence he finds the disruption of the emotional network in the Amygdala that controls emotions that can be link to mood dysregulation. The beneficial of using fMRI is it doesnt require radiation which gives no risk to patients and able to evaluate their brain function safety and effective. There are few disadvantages of using fMRI was because it is very expensive. It only can capture a clear image of the brain only if the person stays still. The procedure of c apturing the clear imagine usually take at least 30 minutes so it wont be good for a person who cannot stay still long. Since it is new, researchers today still dont fully understand how it works so it can be difficult to interpret the results. Another disadvantage example of using this tool was it comes with a lot of criteria that may not suit to certain patients. People with the following implants cannot be scanned and should not enter the MRI scanning area: cochlear (ear) implant, some types of clips used for brain aneurysms, some types of metal coils placed within blood vessels,and nearly all cardiac defibrillators and pacemakers. (Radiation Therapy for Brain Cancer, 2018) This technique was known for patients to not use anything metal because this machine is magnet which can absorb everything, It is not safe for deaf patients who possess cochlear implant that contains magnet device in their skull. The cochlear isnt something they can remove without surgery so it may disrupt their brain study. The deaf patient with cochlear implantation will have to find alternative way if they try to find out if they have any kind of brain cancer. And not only that, due to its high and most accurate technique, it is extremely expensive to the point that not many patients can afford to find their diagnose and seek the treatments earlier. So it also may be difficult for the researchers when it comes to understanding how bilingual may benefits the deaf patients linking to using cochlear implantation. The second of six technology was known as Computed Tomography (CT) is a medical imaging procedure that contains detailed pictures of structures inside the brain by using the X-rays. It can show the brains features, but couldnt show its structure clearly. This article explained how CT scan works, CT scan uses X-rays positioned at different angles to create cross-sectional images of the brain. During a CT scan, a movable X-ray source is rotated around the patients head (NeuroImaging, 2014) This procedure allowed doctors and researchers to see the full view of the head and it provided more information about the brain than traditional X-ray scans, which only can do two-dimensional representation of the brain. It is painless, fast, and affordable. Comparing to other neuroimaging technologies, CT scan has more serious risks which made it a big disadvantage, despite to its advantages. The main risks associated with the use of CT scan, according to US Food Drug Administration are lifetime cancer risk will be increase because of x-ray radiation exposure, possible allergic reaction or kidney failure, and may need to get more follow up test after the abnormal result. Due to these serious risks had required for the patients to have a serious considering discussing with their doctor if this scan will be beneficial. The third of six technologies, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was developed because they couldnt detect more than just static images of the brains structure in CT and fMRI. This technique was used to trace the amount of short lived radio material to map functional processes in the brain. The detector can pick up the radioactive decay a positron is emitted. They can detect the brain activity by looking at the areas of high radioactivity. Unlike other imaging test, PET can find irregularities in body function caused by disease which often happen before body structures changes become observable. The quality of a PET scan is not affected by small movements, so the subject does not have to remain as still for a PET scan as they would for a FMRI or MRI scan, both of which can be ruined by small movements. (Neuroimaging, 2014) This article showed that patients can be more comfortable with PET scan than fMRI without worry about delaying neuroscientists evaluation if they made a small movement. The one of several disadvantages of using PET scan are its qualities and hospital bills. It has poor spatial resolution so it wont be clear. Due to this, it is common for PET to be used together with CT or fMRI. (Neuroimaging, 2014) This means patients had to expect the high hospital bill coming to their home because combination two neuroimaging technologies are double expensive, just because PET couldnt provide the clear image because of low spatial resolution. This is something patients should consider about when it comes to hospital bills. Not only that, PET scan comes with radiation so it will come with risk even if it only a small dose. The fourth of six techniques is Electronecephalography (EEG) is a noninvasive test that records electrical pattern in the patients brain. It used approximately 20 to 128 small electrodes that places on the scalp to measure the electrical activity of the brain. The EEG machine amplifies these signals then records them in a wave pattern on graph paper. The test is used to help diagnose conditions such as seizures, epilepsy, head injuries, dizziness, headaches, brain tumors and sleeping problems. ( This technologies helps patients with seizures disorder to determine the type of seizure and origins of seizures. It is one of few best technique that has high temporal resolution when it comes to diagnosis these type of brain conditions. Just like any other neuroimaging technologies, despite its ability to diagnose certain brain condition, EEG still have has big disadvantages. One of the big disadvantages of EEG/ERP is that its hard to figure out where in the brain the electrical activity is coming from. ( When the electrodes were placed on the scalp, neuroscientist can get some idea of where the electrical signal are strongest components are strongest but it wont tell the location in the brain where the signals came from. But they can get better idea to see where signal comes from in same or different places if theres two ERP components. Since this is the best guess work so this technique requires more improvements. The fifth of six technique, Magnetoncephalography (MEG) is an imaging technique to measure the electrical activity that make magnetic fields in the brain with using very sensitive device that is known as SQUIDS. There are many uses for the MEG, including assisting surgeons in localizing a pathology, assisting researchers in determining the function of various parts of the brain, neurofeedback, and others. (Demitri, 2016). Unlike EEG, it doesnt require electrodes to be attached to the skin. Instead, a person simply sits in a chair, resting their head inside the MEG helmet. ( This technology is more safer than EEG scan. This technique is very beneficial when it comes to assisting the surgeons and researchers when it comes to evaluate conditions like epilepsy by see which area that are stimulated to seizures. Despite how MEG may be less difficult being sit under the magnet, comparing to fMRI scan, MEG still had some disadvantages. The main disadvantages of MEG are that it is more expensive and not as good as fMRI at localizing where precisely in the brain, activity is taking place. ( Simply, fMRI scan is better than MEG because fMRI is better tools when it comes to localizing where is the brain activity takes place in the brain. The last technology, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is the optical technique to measure the blood oxygenation in the brain. The process of using NIRS laser was to chine the light in near infrared part of the spectrum (700-900) through the skill and find how much the remerging light is attenuated and how much it is depends on blood oxygenation. It also provides indirect measure of brain activity. This is especially used on patients with stroke and traumatic brain injury. Unlike any other Neuroimaging technologies, this comes with many advantages are more cheaper, smaller portable, involved with real human interactions, less sensitive to head motion and safe to any ages. NIRS lasers has several disadvantages. It has low spatial resolution which doesnt create a clear image. It can only record brain surface so doctors couldnt see whats inside of it. Theres also have no standard analyzing packaging and inaccurate activation localization. NIR lasers often have beam qualities (e.g., beam width and divergence) which are not so well suited for microscopy. The result is that spatial resolution can be somewhat compromised, and thus achievable results may not meet theoretical predictions. ( This technique can be invaluable sometimes so it wont be considered the best solution to every samples. Overall all these six Neuroimaging technologies functional roles, advantages and disadvantages had been explained. After learning them, they are very extremely important tools in medicine, pathology, and psychology field. Due to these disadvantages, there is an understanding why there arent only one Neuroimaging technique to explore the human brain and able to obtain every answers doctors and researchers need to find due to lack of certain tools. But it is amazing that these Neuroimaging techniques able to help doctors and researchers to further their understanding the human brain and help other patient to get a certain treatments, especially when they were invented in less than approximately 100 years ago. Not surprised they all have similar disadvantages, the price. Even with these amazing techniques, everything in the world always has its disadvantages.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Three Different Types of Economies That Exist in the...

Every society should answer three economic questions, which are what to produce? , how to produce? , for whom to produce? The reason why a society should choose what to produce is because a product of one society’s choice is not necessarily the choice of the other choice. A society should decide how to produce goods, it is due to the fact that not all societies have the same resources, some societies may have a lot of people in them so, if they want to produce a good, they can use their human resources to accomplished their task, in the other hand societies with a low populations but a high amount of machines, can use their resources to finish their task. Some countries may be able to provide items that other countries can not, because†¦show more content†¦The second economic system is called directed or planned economy. In this system decisions are usually made by the government of that country. The third economic system is the one in the United States of America. It is called market economy. In the system, the three economic questions are answered by the people through buying and selling activities in the marketplace, a place where buyers and sellers exchange goods and services in some form of money. In the united states of America Since government has a bit involvement in the economy; it is actually called mixed economy There are five rights or features in the market economy. Which are private enterprise, right of the people to choose whether to own a business, what business to go into, and what to produce with only narrow government direction. The second one is private property. It means you can own, use, of arrange of things of value. You may set out of things you own by selling them, giving them away, or even by throwing them away. In our country, you can own any item and do what you want with it, as long as you do not disobey a law in doing so. The third one is profit, is the money left from sales after subtracting all the costs of op erating the business. The fourth one is competition, the contention among businesses to sell their goods and services to buyers. The fifth one is freedom of choice, the right given to us as buyers to buy what and where we want. Economies are mixed systems becauseShow MoreRelatedA Country Is Authoritarian Or Democratic Is Not A Choice1037 Words   |  5 Pagesthe degree of capitalism that is implemented in a country is the most effective factor in determining a countries regime type. Australia and North Korea are two countries, which have two completely different regime types and economies. Using these countries as examples, I will show how capitalism is the most important factor in the regime type of any country that exists in the world today. I will first give a brief introduction of each of the two countries mentioned. 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The Tao Of The Joy Luck Club Essay Example For Students

The Tao Of The Joy Luck Club Essay Taoism has been a major influence in China throughout much of its history and The Joy Luck Club, by Amy Tan, reflects this influence through its infusion of Taoist principals. One of the fundamental concepts within Taoism is that of Wu-hsing. Wu-hsing is a way of understanding a matter by dividing it into five and is often represented by five phases, elements of directions. This is an unfamiliar concept to a western perspective, which tends to divide things into four. Understanding this fifth additional element, however, is essential to understanding The Joy Luck Club. This fifth component is most clearly represented in The Joy Luck Club through the directional aspect, which is clearly represented at the Mah Jong table, which the women gather around at the Joy Luck Club meetings. Each of the women represent the direction which they sir at on the table and the center of the Mah Jong table represents the fifth direction. In Taoism this fifth direction is the harmonious center where the traditional four directions meet and from which they originate, it is their beginning and their end. In the book the Joy Luck Club meetings serve as this fifth dimension. It is in this fifth direction, the center of the women and the Mah Jong table where the game and story of the Hoy Luck Club is played out. As the game begins the women first wash the tiles in a chaotic mixing motion and then work together to structure these game tiles into an orderly creation in the center of the board (Tan 22). This is the effect of the fifth direction in the womens lives as well. As the members of the Joy Luck Club bring the chaos of their lives and find peace through the combined effect of their relationships with each other. This process of bringing peace from the midst of chaos is first seen when the first Joy Luck Club is created in Kweilin. In Kweilin Suyun finds herself in an extremely chaotic and violent environment, which is the result of the refugee-camp-like city, and the frequent bomb ings, which it comes under. Suyun creates the club here as a source of peace in the midst of their troubles. The meetings become a place where the women do not discuss the eminent danger that surrounds them or their relatives and lives, which they have lost. Instead they focus on food and happy stories. The club provides a source of joy and hope for the women. The dashed hopes which Suyuan had for Kweilin being a place where, If you slipped, you would only fall into a bed of soft moss and laugh, are replaced by the hope that she will be lucky in the Mah Jong games (Tan 7), This hope and joy serves as a center and balancing point for the women who would gave otherwise been completely surrounded in chaos. It is helpful when trying to understand this fifth direction to think of the four women, each holding the end of a rope. All of these four ropes are bound together at a central point. When the women pull away from each other in their opposing directions the bond of this central point has no directional movement and holds them peacefully in place. Imagine that this bond were to break, the women would be launched into their respective directions flying away of falling to the ground. They would be thrown drastically out of balance. It is in this way that the five directions are all interdependent upon each other. An additional element of the five directions, which is important to consider within relation to The Joy Luck Club, is the effect of one of the directions being out of balance. TO continue on with the analogy, if one of the four women began pulling with an uneven force or in an inconsistent direction, the fifth directing of the dynamic center would be thrown out of its previous harmonious state. In this case the center still serves to hold its directions together but they would flail about unbalanced. Within the book we see such an imbalance created when Jing-mei sits in the Easterly direction of the Mah Jobg table to take up her Mothers position. This imb alance is created both by Jing-meis feelings of inadequacy to replace her mother and by the imbalance of her two lost sisters which has cast a shadow into the Woo family so severe that Mister Woo feels it was the cause of Suyuans death (Tan 7). Jing-mei expresses her feelings of inadequacy when she remembers her mother saying, You dont even know little percent of me! How can you be me? (Tan 15). Reflecting on this Jing-Mei feels that her mother was right and asks herself, How can I be my Mother at Joy Luck? (Tan 15). .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a , .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a .postImageUrl , .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a , .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a:hover , .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a:visited , .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a:active { border:0!important; } .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a:active , .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud0553c293a79a9e510bd1a5a30e0329a:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: On Carloss Birth Essay As is the proper role of the other three directions the other women at the table, An-mei, Lindo and Ying-ying take action to pull this Eastern direction into alignment and restore the balance of the central direction. This in emphasized by the variation of the order in which the four families stories are presented in each chapter, emphasizing the movement which all of their directions make in attempt to maintain a balanced center. They accomplish this task by facilitating Jing-meis reunification with her two half-sisters. We see the progress of this balancing effect through the last story of the book where Jing-Mei travels to China. As Jing-mei spends time in China, traveling towards where she will meet her sisters she begins to feel that she is becoming Chinese (Tan 306). She recalls her Mother saying, someday you will see, (Tan 306). And realizes that as she begins to recognize the Chinese spirit in herself she is finally able to see what her mother always meant. She is able to emb race its spirit in her trip to China because she is able to see that she is Chinese not in the garishly awkward ways that she saw in her mother and found embarrassing, such as haggling with store owners, pecking her mouth with a toothpick in public, or wearing colors that didnt match, but in a deeper and more spiritual way. Jing-meis ability to finally accept her own Chineseness allows her to see her mother in a way she could not have before and appreciate her mothers spirit and strength instead of being blocked by the misunderstandings of her mothers ethnicity. This is why, when in the hotel, with her Father, she listens intently to the story of her mothers flight from Chilean and of the sacrifices, which her mother had made. She has heard this story before but never was able to fully appreciate it. As she hears the familiar story now she sees that there was no shame in what her mother did and that she had acted correctly in the situation. We see the full effect of this struggles resolution at the same time we see the imbalance of the lost sisters resolved. When Jing-mei gets of the plane and meets her two sisters resolved. When Jing-mei gets off the plane and meets here two sisters, the three embrace and embody their Mothers spirit calling, Mama, Mama, as they feel that their mothers spirit is there in their midsts as her life time dream is realized (Tan 331). At this moment both the internal imbalance of Jing-meis difficulty in understanding her mother and the multigenerational imbalance of the lost sisters are resolved. This resolution develops in the form of a Polaroid picture. As the three watches their picture develops Jing-mei is able to see that her mother really is inside of her, as she is in her sisters and all is balanced at last.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The SDLC Process Essay Example

The SDLC Process Paper Procedures tend to perform actions as with functions these are reusable Classes Part of the object-oriented programming paradigm a class contains both data and functions that describe a real world thing Objects A concrete Instance of a class complete with Its personal data Abstraction of data One of the key principle Ideas behind the creation of classes In data abstraction the ATA type Is less Important than the operations that can preformed on It In a sense the data type Is hidden behind a Limited number of functions method Predefine code Generally a term describing code that is already written and that can be used in a developers solution with permission this may take the form of a compiled module a call to the operating system or a snippet of ready-made code that can be inserted into their solution b) The OSDL process was designed to ensure end-state solutions meet user requirements in support of business strategic goals and objectives. In addition, the OSDL also provides a detail ed guide to help Program Managers with ALL aspects of IT system development, regardless of the system size and scope. The OSDL contains a comprehensive checklist of the rules and regulations governing IT systems, and is one way to ensure system developers comply with all applicable Government regulations, because the consequences of not doing so are high and wide ranging. This is especially true in the post 9/1 1 environment where larger amounts of Information are considered sensitive in nature, and are shared among commercial, International, Federal, state, and local partners. The seven-step process contains a procedural checklist and the systematic progression required to evolve an IT system from conception to disposition. The following descriptions briefly explain each of the seven phases of the OSDL: 1. Conceptual Planning. This phase Is the first step of any systems life cycle. It Is during this phase that a need to acquire or significantly enhance a system Is identified, Its feasibility and costs are assessed, and the risks and various project-planning approaches are defined. We will write a custom essay sample on The SDLC Process specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The SDLC Process specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The SDLC Process specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Roles and responsibilities for he Asset Manager, Sponsors Representative, System Development Agent (SAD), System Support Agent (ASS), and other parties In OSDL policy are designated during this stage and updated throughout the systems life cycle. 2. Planning and Requirements Definition. This phase begins after the project has been defined and appropriate resources have been committed. The first portion of this phase involves second part is developing initial life cycle management plans, including project planning, project management, Configuration Management (CM), support, operations, and training management. 3. Design. During this phase, functional, support and training requirements are translated into preliminary and detailed designs. Decisions are made to address how the system will meet functional requirements. A preliminary (general) system design, emphasizing the functional features of the system, is produced as a high-level guide. Then a final (detailed) system design is produced that expands the design by specifying all the technical detail needed to develop the system. 4. Development and Testing. During this phase, systems are developed or acquired based on detailed design specifications. The system is litigated through a sequence of unit, integration, performance, system, and acceptance testing. The objective is to ensure that the system functions as expected and that sponsors requirements are satisfied. All system components, communications, applications, procedures, and associated documentation are plopped/acquired, tested, and integrated. This phase requires strong user participation in order to verify thorough testing of all requirements and to meet all business needs. 5. Implementation. During this phase, the new or enhanced system is installed in the production environment, users are trained, data is converted (as added), the system is turned over to the sponsor, and business processes are evaluated. This phase includes efforts required to implement, resolve system problems identified during the implementation process, and plan for statement. 6. Operations and Maintenance. The system becomes operational during this phase. The emphasis during this phase is to ensure that sponsor needs continue to be met and that the system continues to perform according to specifications. Routine hardware and software maintenance and upgrades are performed to ensure effective system operations. User training continues during this phase, as needed, to acquaint new users to the system or to introduce new features to current users. Additional user support is provided, as an ongoing activity, to help resolve reported problems. 7. Disposition. This phase represents the end of the systems life cycle. It provides for the systematic termination of a system to ensure that vital information is preserved for potential future access and/or reactivation. The system, when placed in the Disposition Phase, has been declared surplus and/or obsolete and has been scheduled for shutdown. The emphasis of this phase is to ensure that the system (e. G. , equipment, parts, software, data, procedures, and documentation) is packaged and disposed of in accordance with appropriate regulations and requirements. Each column in the graphic represents an individual phase. The documents in each phase are created and maintained throughout the rest of the development cycles until the final disposition of the project. Although this indicates the process is linear, it is not. It is iterative and once a project is deployed, the management of the project may return to requirements gathering to start all over again.

Monday, March 16, 2020

Siberian punishment essays

Siberian punishment essays In the 1660s the Russian government under Czar Alexis I had begun the practice of punishing common criminals and political offenders by exiling them to Siberia. During the last two centuries of Russian imperial rule, punishment varied significantly from czar to czar. Different styles of interrogation and justice were prevalent with each successive ruler. Autocracy allowed for what seems to be a harsh system of imperial punishment. In actuality, the practice of capital punishment and torture were commonplace throughout European rulers. Though labeled by the west as barbaric at times, Russia had no striking trends in outrageous punishment from Peter the Great to Nicholas II. What does differ between Europe and Russia in terms of punishment were the crimes committed. Europe saw much religious persecution and punishment of vagrants and peasants. Russia saw more peasant revolts and responded with oppression. Perhaps also alarming is the number of formerly powerful government officials of the Russian court sent to exile in Siberia. It becomes clear that czars were not overly cruel to the citizens of imperial Russia. However, at the same time, the gentry and peasants did know that the czar held the power, and the czar would let them know what happened to traitors. Peter the Great was a very progressive ruler, taking rational aspects of European society and incorporating them into the Russian infrastructure. These included military reform, educational reform, and cultural amending. Peter was also somewhat progressive in punishment, but he did utilize some rather harsh methods. If a person were exiled, he/she would be sent for hard labor in Siberia, perhaps at the lead/silver mines of Nerchinsk. But a favorite of Peter's was beating and interrogation rather than outright exile. A prime example of this is his son Alexis, whom he had beaten and tortured, eventually killing him. Peter knew that as long as his son was alive, h...

Friday, February 28, 2020

Property Investment Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 1

Property Investment Analysis - Essay Example In a series of cases, the wording of the lease agreements on rent review clauses was held to be upward only. In the case of Royal Insurance Property Services Ltd v Cliffway Ltd2 the lease agreement allowed the landlords to serve a notice on an increase in rent. One of the major questions that the Court had to address in this case was whether the lease allowed for a downwards review. The conclusion in this instance was that based upon the wording of the clause, provision existed only for upward revision, with only the landlord being able to initiate rent changes. Similarly, in the case of Standard Life Assurance v Unipath Ltd3a majority of the Court of Appeal ruled that the provision in the lease agreement pertaining to rent review was an upwards only clause. In this case the Court also observed that the purpose of a rent review clause cannot necessarily be assumed to be on the basis of anticipating changes in money; it might also represent the desire on the part of investors to protect themselves against risk and allow for the certainty of income contained in a rent review clause. Another problem that has been created in the sphere of rent reviews is that they provide for the landlord to initiate a rent review process by issuing a â€Å"trigger notice† and the validity of such notices has been an issue in the cases of Norwich Union Life Insurance Society v Sketchley plc.4 Letters from the tenants have been held to be valid counter notices in the cases of Nunes v Davies Laing and Dick Ltd5and British Rail Pension Trustee Co Ltd v Cardshops Ltd6 where the open market rental rate was the subject of dispute between the landlord and tenant. The underlying commercial purpose behind the inclusion of a rent review clause was spelt out by the Vice Chancellor in the case of British gas Corporation v Universities Superannuation Scheme Ltd7 who stated: â€Å"in the absence of special circumstances, it is proper to give